Haemanthus (Scadoxus)

Amaryllidaceae
Biblio

Scadoxus

J. G. Baker in: Oliver, Flora of Tropical Africa, 7: 386-392. 1898


Page 386
7. HÆMANTHUS, Linn.; Benth. et Hook. f. Gen. Pl. iii. 730. Perianth erect, hypocrateriform; tube subcylindrical; segments equal, linear or lanceolate, usually spreading. Stamens inserted at the throat of the perianth-tube; filaments filiform, often longer than the segments; anthers small, oblong. Ovary globose, 3-celled; ovules 1-2, large, pendulous from the centre of the axile placenta; style long, filiform; stigma minutely tricuspidate. Fruit globose, baccate. Seeds often solitary; testa pale, membranous.-Rootstock a tunicated bulb. Leaves oblong or lorate, membranous in all the Tropical African species. Flowers densely umbellate, usually bright red; bracts more than 2, mem- branous, reflexing or ascending. Species 40, all the others in South Africa, except one in Arabia and one in Socotra. **NERISSA. Perianth-segments and spathe-valves spreading. Peduncle lateral as regards the tuft of leaves. Perianth-segments 1-nerved. Perianth-segments ½-5/8 in. long . . . . . . . . 1. H. filiflorus. Perianth-segments 1 in. long . . . . . . . . . . . . 2. H. zambesiacus.
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Perianth-segments 3-5-nerved. Perianth-segments ½ in. long. Filaments ½ in. long . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3. H. micrantherus. Filaments ¾ in. long . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4. H. rupestris. Perianth-segments ¾-1 in. long. Stamens as long as the perianth-segments. Pedicels short . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5. H. Mannii. Pedicels half as long as the flowers . . . . 6. H. eurysiphon. Stamens longer than the perianth-segments. Umbel 3-6 in. diam. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7. H. multiflorus. Umbel 6-8 in. diam. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8. H. robustus. Peduncle central as regards the tuft of leaves. Perianth-tube 1/5 in. long. Segments three times the length of the tube . 9. H. kundianus. Segments five times the length of the tube . . 10. H. germarianus. Perianth-tube ¼-1/3 in. long. Umbel about 3 in. diam. Petiole 4-5 in. long . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11. H. rotularis. Petiole 6-9 in. long . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12. H. cinnabarinus. Umbel 4-5 in. diam. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13. H. angolensis. Perianth-tube ½ in. long . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14. H. longipes. Perianth-tube ¾ in. long . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15. H. Lindeni. **GYAXIS. Umbel dense. Perianth-segments and spathe- valves permanently ascending. Stamens very short . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16. H. brachyandrus. Stamens longer than the perianth-segments. Spathe-valves 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17. H. bivalvis. Spathe-valves several, unequal . . . . . . . . . . . 18. H. somaliensis. 1. H. filiflorus, Hiern ex Baker in Journ. Bot. 1878, 194. Bulb globose, 1½-2 in. diam. Leafy stem about 1 ft. long, bearing about 6 leaves with broad sheathing petioles; blade oblong, 1 ft. long, 5-6 in. broad; main veins 10-12 between midrib and edge, the inner ¼ in. apart; cross-veinlets very close, oblique. Peduncle lateral, 1 ft. long, spotted. Umbel very dense, 5-6 in. diam.; pedicels 1-1¼ in. long; spathe-valves oblong, reflexing, red-brown, 2 in. long. Perianth bright red; tube cylindrical, 1/3 in. long; segments subulate, 1-nerved, ½-5/8 in. long. Filaments ¾ in. long; anthers small, oblong.-Baker, Handb. Amaryllid. 63. Lower Guinea. Angola: Pungo Andongo, Welwitsch, 4009! 4010! 2. H. zambesiacus, Baker. Bulb globose, 2 in. diam. Leaves oblong, 8-9 in. long, 3 in. broad, obtuse, minutely cuspidate, narrowed gradually to the connate petioles, which form a short stem. Peduncle stout, lateral, above 1 ft. long. Umbel globose, 6 in. diam.; spathe- valves small, lanceolate, reflexing; pedicels bright red, 1½-2 in. long. Perianth-tube cylindrical, ¼ in. long; segments linear, reflexed, 1-nerved, 1 in. long. Filaments a little longer than the segments, flattened towards the base. Mozamb. Dist. British Central Africa: Northern Zambesia; Boruma, on the River Zambesi, Menyharth, 691!
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3. H. micrantherus, Pax in Engl. Jahrb. xv. 140. Bulb and leaves unknown. Peduncle slender, lateral. Umbel 3 in. diam.; spathe-valves lanceolate, reflexed, withered at flowering time; pedicels slender, about 1 in. long. Perianth-tube 1/3-¼ in. long; segments narrowly linear, reflexing, ½ in. long. Filaments as long as or rather longer than the perianth-segments; anthers ½ lin. long. Mozamb. Dist. German East Africa: Ugalla; on the banks of the Ugalla River, Bohm, 28A. No specimen in the Kew Herbarium. 4. H. rupestris, Baker in Gard. Chron. 1877, vii. 656. Bulb small, globose. Leaves 2 from the summit of a short slender special stem; petioles slender, 1½-2 in. long; blade oblong, 6 in. long, 4 in. broad, rounded at the base; main veins 8-9 between the midrib and edge, the inner 4-4 in. apart; transverse veinlets very oblique. Peduncle slender, lateral as regards the leafy stem, 3-9 in. long. Umbel dense, globose, 3 in. diam.; pedicels ½-¾ in. long; spathe- valves 4-5, linear-oblong, reddish, reflexing, 1-1½ in. long. Perianth bright red; tube ¾ in. long; segments linear, twice as long as the tube. Filaments ¾ in. long; anthers oblong, 1/12 in. long.-Baker, Handb. Amaryllid. 64. Upper Guinea. Niger Territory : Nupe, in rocky places, Barter, 1505 ! 5. H. Mannii, Baker in Bot. Mag. t. 6364. Bulb globose, 1½-2 in. diam. Leaves 5-6 at the summit of a short special stem, contem- porary with the flowers, shortly petioled, oblong, cuspidate, ½ ft. long, 2-2½ in. broad; main veins about 10 on each side of the petiole; trans- verse veinlets close, very oblique. Peduncle slender, 8-12 in. long. Umbel 3-4 in. diam., less dense than in H. multijforus; pedicels short; spathe-valves small, lanceolate, reflexing. Perianth bright red; tube 1/3-½ in. long; segments lanceolate, 3-nerved, ¾-½ in. long. Filaments as long as the perianth-segments; anthers small, oblong.-Baker, Handb. Amaryllid. 63. Upper Guinea. Sierra Leone: Bagru River, Mann, 897! Liberia : cultivated specimen, Carder! 6. H. eurysiphon, Harms in Engl. Jahrb. xix. Beibl. 47, 27. Bulb globose. Leaves shortly acuminate, developed after the bulb. Peduncle lateral, cylindrical, 1 in. diam. Flowers 30-35 in an umbel, bright red; spathe-valves oblong or oblong-lanceolate, acuminate or acute; pedicels about half as long as the flowers, under 1 in. long. Perianth-tube cylindrical, about ½ in. long, 1/16-1/10 in. diam.; segments linear-lanceolate, reflexing, about ¾ in. long. Stamens not longer than the perianth-segments. Mozamb. Dist. German East Africa: Kilimanjaro; Marangu, 7000 ft., Volkens, 1498. No specimen at Kew. 7. H. multiflorus, Martyn, Monogr. with figure. Bulb globose, 2-3 in. diam. Leaves 3-4, produced on a short special stem, oblong,
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acute, ½-1 ft. long, 3-4 in. broad, shortly petiolate; main veins 6-8 on each side of the distinct midrib, the inner ¼-1/3 ,in. apart with close oblique cross-veinlets. Peduncle separate from the leafy stem, often spotted towards the base. Umbel dense, globose, 3-6 in. diam.; pedicels 1-1½ in. long; spathe-valves 6-8, lanceolate, reflexing, green, 1½-2 in. long. Perianth blood-red; tube cylindrical, ¼-½ in. long; segments linear, 3-nerved, ¾-1 in. long. Filaments longer than the perianth-segments; anthers oblong, 1/12-1/8 in. long. Berry bright scarlet.-Bot. Mag. tt. 961 and 1995; Andr. Bot. Rep. t. 318; Red. Lil. t. 204; Lodd. Bot. Cab. t. 912; Flore des Serres, t. 52; A. Rich. Tent. Fl. Abyss. ii. 312; Kunth. Enum. v. 587; Engl. Hochgebirgsfl. Trop. Afr. 169; Baker, Handb. Amaryllid. 63; Schweinf. in Bull. Herb. Boiss. ii. App. ii. 80. H. abyssinicus, Herb. Amaryllid. 232. H. delagoensis, Herb. Amaryllid. 233. H. tenuflorus, Herb. in Bot. Mag. t. 3870. H. Kalbreyeri, Baker in Gard. Chron. 1878, x. 202; Flore des Serres, t. 2377-8; Ill. Hort. 1879, t. 354. Upper Guinea. Los Islands; in open spaces under trees, Kalbreyer, 230! Sierra Leone: near Falaba, Scott-Elliot, 5462A! near Kurusu, Scott-Elliot, 5540! and without precise locality, Barter ! Forster ! Lagos : Illaro, Millen, 113 of 1893 collection ! Yoruba, Barter, 3423 ! Millson, 65 ! Niger Territory : Bornu; Musgu, Vogel, 100 ! Cameroons: Yaunde, 2600 ft., Zenker & Staudt, 252! Fernando Po, 5000 ft.. Mann, 393 ! Nile Land. Eritrea : Bogos ; Keren, 4500 ft., Beccari, 126! Kordofan, Pfund, 297! British East Africa : White Nile, Petherick! Jur; Jur Ghattas, Schweinfurth, 1934! Bongo ; North of Gir, Scweinfurth, 1384! Rowenzori; in forest at 8000 ft., Scott-Elliot, 7814 ! Kilimanjaro Expedition, 40-60 miles from the coast, Johnston ! Mozamb. Dist. German East Africa : East shore of Lake Tanganyika, Scott- Elliot, 8303 ! and without precise locality, Hannington ! Portuguese East Africa : Lupata, on the River Zambesi, Kirk ! Lower Zambesi ; near Expedition Island, Kirk ! British Central Africa: Nyasaland; Manganja Hills, Waller! Meller! Magomero, Meller ! and without precise locality, Buchanan ! Matabeleland, Oates! Also at Delagoa Bay. 8. H. robustus, Pax in Engl. Jahrb. xv. 140. Bulb and leaves unknown. Peduncle robust, cylindrical. Umbel dense, 6-8 in. diam.; spathe-valves reflexed, withered at the flowering time; pedicels above 2 in. diam. Perianth-tube ¼-1/3 in. long; segments linear-lanceolate, nearly 1 in. long. Stamens 1 in. long; anthers oblong, 1/8 in. long. Mozamb. Dist. German East Africa: Gonda, Bohm, 286. No specimen at Kew. 9. H. kundianus, J. Braun & Schumann in Mitth. Deutsch. Schutzgeb. ii. (1889) 146. Bulb globose, 1-2 in. diam. Leaves pro- duced direct from the bulb, long-petioled, oblong, nearly 1 ft. long, 4½-5 in. broad, very obtuse, shortly narrowed to the base, membranous; transverse veinlets oblique. Peduncle 10 in. long. Umbel globose; pedicels under 1 in. long. Perianth-tube 1/5 in. long; segments three times the length of the tube. Stamens much longer than the perianth- segments.
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Upper Guinea. Cameroons, Braun. No specimen at Kew. 10. H. germarianus, J. Braun & Schumann in Mitth. Deutsch. Schutzgeb. ii. (1889) 145. Bulb globose, 1 in. diam. Leaves about 7 to a tuft, produced direct from the bulb, long-petioled, oblong, 8-10 in. long, narrowed to the base, membranous when dried; transverse veinlets oblique. Peduncle long, central, unspotted. Umbel 4 in. diam. ; spathe-valves lanceolate ; pedicels 1-1½ in. long. Perianth-seg- ments, spreading, 5-nerved, 1 in. long, 5 times the length of the tube. Filaments longer than the perianth-segments. Upper Guinea. Cameroons, Braun. No specimen at Kew. 11. H. rotularis, Baker in Gard. Chron. 1877, vii. 656. Bulb globose, 1 in. diam. Leaves springing directly from the bulb; petiole slender, 4-5 in. long; blade oblong, acute, 8-9 in. long, 3-3½ in. broad; main veins 10-12 between the edge and the midrib, the inner ¼ in. apart; cross veinlets horizontal. Peduncle slender, ½ ft. long. Umbel dense, 3 in. diam.; spathe-valves about 8, lanceolate, 1½-2 in. long; pedicels ½-¾ in. long. Perianth bright red ; tube 1/3 in. long; segments lanceolate, 5-nerved, twice as long as the tube. Filaments as long as the perianth-segments.-Baker, Handb. Amaryllid. 65. Upper Guinea. Niger Territory : Lagos ; Yoruba, in forests, Barter, 3416! 12. H. cinnabarinus, DecaiSne in Flore des Serres, t. 1195. Bulb globose, 1 in. diam. Leaves about 4, produced direct from the bulb, contemporary with the flowers; petiole 6-9 in. long; blade oblong, cuspidate, 6-9 in. long, 3 in. broad, narrowed to the base; main veins 9-10 between the midrib and edge; transverse veinlets oblique. Peduncle slender, ½-1 ft. long. Umbel dense, 3-4 in. diam.; spathe- valves many, lanceolate, 1½ in. long; pedicels ½-1 in. long. Perianth bright crimson ; tube ¼-1/3 in. long; segments lanceolate, laxly 5-nerved, ¾ in. long. Filaments bright red, 1 in. long; anthers oblong, 1/12 in. long.-Hook. in Bot. Mag. t. 5314; Floral Mag. n.s. t. 245; Baker, Handb. Amaryllid. 64. Upper Guinea. Gold Coast, Burton & Cameron ! Lagos, Moloney! Yoruba, Millson, 66! Rowland ! Cameroons: Ambas Bay, Mann, 779! Rio del Rey, John- ston ! Cameroon mountain at 4000 ft.; Mann, 1341! 13. H. angolensis, Welw. ex Baker in Journ. Bot. 1878, 194. Bulb globose, 1 in. diam., with a short neck. Leaves 3-4, produced direct from the bulb; petiole 6-7 in. long, dilated at the base; blade oblong, cuspidate, ½-1 ft. long, 4 in. broad, rounded at the base; main veins 8-9 between the midrib and edge; transverse veinlets fine, close, oblique. Peduncle short, 1 ft. long, arising from the centre of the leaves. Umbel dense, 4-5 in. diam.; pedicels 1-1¼ in. long; spathe- valves deciduous. Perianth bright crimson; tube 1/3 in. long; segments linear, 3-5 nerved, ¾ in. long. Filaments about 1 in. long; anthers oblong, 1/12 in. long.-Baker, Handb. Amaryllid. 65. Lower Guinea. Angola: Golungo Alto, 1000-2400 ft., Welwitsch, 4008!
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14. H. longipes, Engl. Jahrb. vii. 332. Bulb globose, 1 in. diam. Leaves 3, shortly petioled, oblong, cuspidate, 6-9 in. long, 2½-3 in. broad; main veins indistinct, the inner ¼ in. apart; cross-veinlets nearly horizontal. Peduncle central, moderately stout. Umbel many- flowered, 4-5 in. diam.; spathe-valves deciduous; pedicels 1-1¼ in. long. Perianth-tube ½ in. long; segments linear, half as long again as the tube. Filaments as long as the perianth-segments.-Notizbl. Konigl. Bot. Gart. Berl. i. 1897, 290, with tab. Upper Guinea. Cameroons : Mungo, Buchholz, and without precise locality, Preuss, 874 ! Flowered in the Berlin Botanic Garden in 1897. 15. H. Lindeni, N. E. Brown in Gard. Chron. 1890, viii. 436, fig. 85. Bulb globose. Leaves about 8, produced direct from the bulb; petiole slender, nearly or quite as long as the blade; blade oblong, acute, rounded at the base, 9-12 in. long, 3½-4 in. broad; main veins 9-10 between the midrib and edge ; cross veinlets very fine, oblique. Peduncle stout, central, 1-1½. ft. long. Umbel dense, 6-8 in. diam.; pedicels 1½ in. long; bracts numerous, linear, 1½-2 in. long. Perianth bright salmony scarlet, fading to pink; tube 8-10 lin. long; segments linear, 5-nerved, above 1 in. long. Filaments bright red, 1¼-1½ in. long; anthers oblong, 1/12 in. long.-Ill. Hort. 1890, t. 112. Lower Guinea. Congo, cultivated specimen, Linden ! 16. H. brachyandrus, Baker. Bulb and leaves unknown. Peduncle slender, umbel dense, globose, many-flowered, 1-1½ in. diam.; bracts several, ascending, membranous, lanceolate or oblong- lanceolate, 1 in. long; pedicels very short. Perianth whitish ; tube 1/8 in. long; segments linear, ascending, 1/3 in. long. Stamens much shorter than the perianth-segments; filaments not longer than the oblong anthers. Upper Guinea. Sierra Leone: near Kundita, growing in water, Scott-Elliot, 5082! 17. H. bivalvis, G. Beck in Paulit. Harar, 452, fig. 1. Bulb and leaves unknown. Peduncle nearly 1 ft. long, mottled with red towards the base. Umbel dense, many-flowered, 2-3 in. diam.; spathe-valves 2, broad, ovate, green, ascending, bifid, above 2 in. long; pedicels shorter than the flowers. Perianth-tube under ½ in. long; segments linear, rather longer than the tube; papillose on the inner side below the tip. Filaments 1 in. long. Nile Land. Somaliland: Mount Haquin, near Harar, Paulitschke. No specimen at Kew. 18. H. somaliensis, Baker in Kew Bulletin. 1895, 227. Leaves 3, produced on a short special stem contemporary with the flowers, shortly petioled, oblong, acute, ½ ft. long, cuneate at the base. Peduncle slender, lateral, 6-8 in. long. Umbel globose, 2-3 in. diam.; bracts very un- equal, oblong or lanceolate, ascending, 1½ in. long; pedicels ½ in. long.
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Perianth-tube ¼-1/3 in. long; segments linear, ascending, as long as the tube. Filaments twice as long as the perianth-segments; anthers very small. Berry globose, the size of a pea. Nile Land. Somaliland : summit of the Golis range, 5900 ft., Miss Edith Cole ! Mrs. Lort-Phillips ! 19. H. Nicholsoni, Baker. Leaves unknown. Peduncle slender. Umbel 3 in. diam.; spathe-valves 2, small, lanceolate, spreading; pedicels 1 in. long. Perianth-tube slender, cylindrical, 1/6 in. long; segments linear, 1-nerved, ½ in. long, not spreading. Stamens as long as the perianth-segments; anthers small, oblong, yellow. Style finally 1/6 in. longer than the perianth-segments. Mozamb. Dist. British Central Africa : North Nyasaland, Nicholson ! Seems to be intermediate between the two sections.

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