63. Haemanthus in: Herbert 1837

Amaryllidaceae
Biblio : Herbert

Haemanthus
Scadoxus

= Haemanthus L. + Scadoxus Raf.


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232 AMARYLLIDACEÆ. 63. HÆMANTHUS. - Spathe 3-many-valved ; perianth nearly regular, tube straight; filaments straight, inserted in the top of the tube ; anthers short, suberect; lobes of stigma three or obsolete; pericarp valveless, furrow- less, often coloured, middle coat pulpy; cells with one ovule, dissepiments obsolete. §.1. Bulbo ovato, foliis cylindraceo-vaginantibus, undulatis. Bulb ovate, leaves cylindrically sheathing, undulated.
A. Limb patent.
1. Multiflorus. - Bot. Mag. 24. .961. et 45. 1995. Lodd. B. C. 1948. Spathe 3-leaved, drooping, and withering. Sierra Leone. 2. Abyssinicus. - Specim. Salt. Herb. Lambert, ex Abyssinia. Spatha plurivalvi 1¾-unc. purpurea reflexa, floribus numerosissimis, pedunc. 1 1/8-unc. florilus H. multifloro dimidio vel ultra minoribus. Many-valved purple reflex spathe, flowers very
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AMARYLLIDACEÆ. 233 crowded, scarcely half the size of those of mul- tiflorus. 3. Delagoensis. - Specim. Forbes 101. Herb. Lindl. Spatha 3 (vel 4?) valvi, 1½-unc. bractea una 3/8 unc. ¼ unc. lat. cæteris gracilibus ; floribus nu- merosissimis, pedunc. unc. vel ultra, germ. gracili, tubo cylindrico vix ¼ unc. perianthio rubro gracili patente filamentis breviore. From Delogoa Bay. These two plants seem to form a link between multiflorus and puniceus, and shew that the genus takes a wide range in Africa. It is impossible from the dry specimen to be certain whether the limb is patent as in multiflora or not.
B. Limb erect.
4. Puniceus. - Bot. Mag. 32. 1315. Lodd. B. C. 912. Spathe many-valved, green, suberect, persistent; flowers erect, closed, pale yellowish red. Var. fortuita. Subalba. Variety with flowers nearly white, imported by Mr. Lee from the Cape. §.2. Foliis erectis, undulatis; bulbo cylindraceo-ovato. Leaves erect, undulated; bulb cylindrically ovate. 5. Undulatus. - Pl. 30. fig. 1. Masson. Herb. Banks. Bulbo unc. 5/8 lat. foliis 6-unc. ½ unc. lat. undulatis- simis, erectis; scapo 2-unc. spatha coccinea, sub- unc. filamentis alternis stylo longioribus. This curious little plant has lain long unnoticed in the Banks. Herb, having been one of Masson's collec- tion. The inflorescence is almost destroyed, but one flower and part of three valves of a scarlet spathe remain. The bulb seems to approach to that of the first section, and is not imbricated. §.3. Foliis non vaginantibus, non undulatis; bulbo com- presso imbricato. Leaves not sheathing, not undu- lated ; bulb compressed, imbricated.
A. Limb patent.
6. Amaryllidioides. - Jacq. H. Sc. 4. p. 5. t. 408. Two leaves with a red tip, acute, erect, an inch wide, smooth, not spotted; scape 5 inches, pinkish; spathe lanceolate, red with white edges; ped. green, an inch long; germen red; flowers semipatent;
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234 AMARYLLIDACEÆ. limb scarcely half an inch long, rose-coloured; stigma minute, trifid. 7. Carneus. - Bot. Reg. 6. 509. Bot. Mag. 61. 3373. H. Roseus. Link enum. 1. p. 309. Leaves broad, hairy all over ; spathe withering, not coloured ; flowers semipatent, rose-coloured. This species is subject to variation. The bulb figured in the Mag. has longer peduncles and more acute leaves ; my bulbs have the leaves obtuse. 8. Strigosus. - Pl. 30. fig. 2. Specim. Masson. Herb. Banks. Foliis binis recumbentibus, 2-unc. 1 3/8 lat. scapo 6-7 unc. spatha reflexa 1¾ unc. 3 (4 ?) valvi, lanc. lin. acuta, floribus 15-16, ped. ¼ unc. perianth. pallide ? roseo, cum germ. 3/8, fil. vix brevioribus, stylo vix longiore ; stigmate minute trifido. An- other curious plant of Masson's which has been overlooked ; allied to carneus. 9. Lanceæfolius. - Jacq. H. Sch. 1. 31. t. 60. Leaves recumbent, ovate, acute, 6 inches by 2, thickly re- curvedly ciliate; flowers 7, like pumilio, but smaller. 10. Pumilio. - Jacq. H. Sch. 1. 32. t. 61. Leaves sub- erect, ¾ wide, spotted at the base; spathe large, coloured ; flowers 4-5, white, widely patent. 11. Brevifolius. - Pl. 30. fig. 3. Specim. Masson. Herb. Banks. Foliis tribus uncialibus, 3/8 latis ; scapo un- ciali; spatha reflexa, 4-valvi, gracili, acuta; floribus 10, unà cum germ. 3/8 unc. albis. This very curious diminutive plant, with three broad leaves an inch long, scape an inch high, pendulous spathe and ten white flowers, is another plant of Masson's. Both this and strigosus have MS. names affixed to the specimens, which were certainly given with an intention of publishing them in the Hort. Kew. Undulatus is named by me.
B. Limb erect, close.
12. Humilis. - Jacq. H. Sch. 4. 6. t. 411. Two leaves six inches by 1½, narrow at the base, strongly ci- liated backward, suberect; scape 2-3 inches, pale green; spathe conspicuous, purplish pink; peduncle ¾ ; flowers white, just shorter than the filaments.
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AMARYLLIDACEÆ. 235 13. Virescens. - Bulbo viridi, foliis pubescentibus vel ciliatis, spatha non colorata, perianthio albescente filamentis breviore. Bulb green, leaves pubescent or ciliated, spathe not coloured, perianth whitish, shorter than the filaments. Var. 1. Pubescens. - Bot. Reg. 5. 382. Lodd. B. C. 702. Leaves broad, hairy, varying in obtuseness; spathe many-leaved, green; perianth white, shorter than the stamina and style. In the Banks. Herb, pu- bescens has the leaf acute, albiflos obtuse. My plant of pubescens has obtuse leaves. Var. 2. Intermedius. - Bot. Mag. 31. 1239. Leaves smooth, margin villously ciliated, spathe white with green veins; style more prolonged. Var. 3. Albiflos. - Bot. Reg. 12. 984. Jacq. H. Sch. 1. 31. t. 39. Lodd. B. C. 602. Leaves smooth, margin ciliated ; spathe whitish ; style not pro- longed. I suspect that these natural varieties will be found permanent by seed, and that they are distinct in their localities, though properly to be united under one head ; but pubescens is not a right name to comprehend the three, though very fit to designate the one which is downy. Their green bulb distinguishes them from all the species I know. 14. Quadrivalvis. - Pl. 31. f. 4. Jacq. H. Sch. 1. 30. t. 58. Bot. Mag. 37. 1523. Leaves narrow, acute, spotted (not always) on the base behind, hairy on the surface ; scape spotted ; spathe large, bright red; perianth red, very close, tipped with white; stigma trifid. 15. Rotundifolius. - Pl. 31. f. 8. Bot. Mag. 1618. Leaves pressed to the ground, large, round, with a rough margin; scape and spathe deep red, 4-valved; perianth pale red with white tips, shorter than stamina and style. Var.2. Multivalvis. - Lambertianus. Martius ap. Schultes. Callosus. Burchell Cat. et tab. pict. Differs in nothing but more valves to the spathe, and a trifling variation of the leaf. 16. Sanguineus. - Pl. 31. f. 5. Jacq. H. Sch. 4. 4. t.
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236 AMARYLLIDACEÆ. 407. Leaves large, unspotted, when young tipped with red; scape deep red; spathe-valves acute, narrow, veined with deep red; flowers crowded, but not compressed; perianth red, with white tips and base, shorter than filaments ; stigma trifid. 17. Hyalocarpus. - Jacq. H. Sch. 4. 5. t. 409. Pl. 31. fig. 9. Leaves broad, not spotted; scape spotted ; spathe longer than the flowers, bright red; ped. and germ. each half an inch, pale; limb red, tipped with white; stigma trifid; fruit purplish white. Seed one (represented blackish?) 18. Moschatus. - Pl. 31. f. 7. Jacq. H. Sch. 4. 6. t. 410. Leaves 1½ foot long, 4½ inches wide, at first thinly pubescent, crossed-barred with red below, and deep green upwards; spathe light scarlet; flowers crowded, compressed ; ped. and germ. pale green, flower red, tipped with white, close; fila- ments half an inch longer. The last five species agree with the next in having the spathe red and the perianth tipped with a white glandular callosity; the two first are widely distinguished by the foli- age ; the latter have the leaves more nearly allied, but they appear to be distinct. 19. Coccineus. - Foliis rubro apiculatis magnis linguæ- formibus, umbella multivalvi colorata floribus sub- longiore, limbo rubro apice albo calloso filamentis breviore, scapo maculato. Var. 1. Grandivalvis. - H. Coccineus. Hort. Kew. Bot. Mag. 27. 1075. Spathe with large deep-red roundish valves ; leaves not barred. Var. 2. Coarctatus. - Pl. 31. f. 6. Jacq. H. Sch. 1. 30. t. 57. Bot. Reg. 3. 181. Spathe close, orange- red or salmon-coloured; perianth dull red, pale at bottom ; leaves smaller, not barred. These agree in foliage, not barred, but tipped, when young, with red, spathe as long as the flowers, limb shorter than the filaments, and tipped with a white callosity. Var. 3. Carinatus. - Hort. Kew. This plant seems only distinguishable from Coccineus by the leaves being much narrower and more channelled. It has not flowered with me yet, but the particulars recorded
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AMARYLLIDACEÆ. 237 are insufficient to separate it from Coccineus. Leaves much narrower, more channelled, and much longer than those of coarctatus, not barred. I have four other species or varieties which have not yet flowered, but seem allied to Coccineus. 1. Leaf like coarc- tatus, with two or three red spots. 2. Leaf closely barred with narrow greenish-red bars towards the base; root given to produce offsets. 3. Leaf barred more rarely with a redder colour. 4. Leaves narrower than grandivalvis, with broad reddish bars. All smooth and tipped with red, which if the flower agree, as I expect, with Coccineus, will make 7 varie- ties, unless No. 1. should prove to be coarctatus. I have that plant with the spathe not more compressed than grandivalvis. I do not believe that in the native specimens of the latter the spathe is only 4-valved, but many-valved in the same when cultivated, as stated in Hort. Kew. 20. Incarnatus. - Pl. 31. f. 1. Burchell 4556. Tab. pict. 1818. Foliis recumbentibus 7-unc. obtusis obovatis, infra attenuatis, scapo rubro, spatha multivalvi flo- ribus breviore pallide rubro, ped. 3/8 unc. tubo et limbo rubro, stylo limbo longiore filamentis breviore, stigmate minuto. I believe I possess this plant, which is allied to tigrinus, but it has not flowered. Leaves not barred, scape red, flower entirely red, style longer than the limb, shorter than the filaments, stigma small; spathe pale red; valves short and narrow. 21. Tigrinus. - Pl. 31. f. 3. Jacq. H. Sch. 1. 29. t. 56. Bot. Mag. 41. 1705. Leaves ciliated, obovate, very little attenuated; scape green, speckled; spathe red, valves short, narrow ; germ. and ped. green ; tube white; limb red; style and filaments equal, longer. 22. Crassipes. - Pl. 31. f. 10. Jacq. H. Sch. 4. 7. t. 412. Leaves closely ciliated, arcuate, 6 inches long, much spotted and barred with red, 1½ wide; scape spotted ; spathe broad, scarlet, nearly as long as the flower, which is pale red, shorter than the filaments, stigma trifid. Allied to quadrivalvis, but has not the callous tip or hairy surface. 23. Zebrinus. - Apud me nondum floridus, foliis 8-11- unc. lævibus, obtusis, superne 1 1/8 latis, infra at-
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238 AMARYLLIDACEÆ. tenuat. ½ unc. lat. dorso ad dimid. longitud den- sissime, superficie rarius, clathrato-macul. Species distincta, nisi crassipedis varietas. Leaves 8-11 inches, obtuse, 1 1/8 wide, below only half an inch; closely barred half their length below, less densely on the upper surface, smooth. 24. Concolor. - Pl. 31. f. 2. Burchell Herb. B. 276. Foliis lorato-lanceolatis lævibus subacutis 8 unc. 1 3/8 lat. scapo 6 unc. spatha 1¼ rubra circ. 8 valvi floribus vix brev. perianthio stylo filamentis conco- loribus, filamentis limbo longioribus stylo brevio- ribus, stigmate trifido. A very desirable small species, being as well as crassipes and quadrivalvis equal to the larger in the inflorescence. I have lately received from Mr. Loddiges a small Hæ- manthus, imported by him from the Cape under the name Coccineus, which has a smooth leaf not an inch wide, and dotted at the base with red, which is probably allied to Con- color. Hæmanthus dubius H. and B. Kunth. must be a Phycella. Hæmanthus vaginatus Thunb. Flor. Cap. from its six linear leaves, and two-valved spathe, does not agree with Hæmanthus, and I entertain no doubt of its belonging to my genus Hessea intermediate between Nerine and Stru- maria. It is referred with doubts by Schultes to Bruns- vigia, with which it does not agree. It will be observed that in this genus there is an extra- ordinary diversity between the first and second section in the bulb, leaf, and habit, such as occurs in no other genus; but I cannot find any diversity in the flower and fruit, and a like variation of species with close and with patent flowers occurs in both divisions. The difference is so great as to raise a doubt whether they form one genus. In the first section the leaves have a long fistulous or hollow cylindrical foot-stalk, which acts as a sheath : in that respect, perhaps, the difference is not much greater than in Amaryllis, of which Blanda vaginates above six inches; but the conse- quence of this vagination in Hæmanthus is a different form of bulb. That of Hæmanthus has been called imperfect, but I see no imperfection in it. All such bulbs consist of coats, which are the permanent base of the leaves after the upper part has perished. In the species which have only two very broad leaves without a footstalk, the sheathing base is necessa-
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AMARYLLIDACEÆ. 239 rily much wider one way, which makes the shape of the bulb compressed, and not round like those which are formed by leaves that sheath cylindrically ; consequently the bulbs of the first section are not compressed, but cylindrically ovate. In all bulbs the outer coats must be stretched by the internal growth of new leaves ; when the leaves sheath cylindrically, the neck or orifice being small,the old coats in stretching can- not slip downwards; but, in the second section of Hæmanthus from the breadth of the leaves, which have no cylindrical base, the mouth of the bulb is wide one way; and, as fresh leaves arise, the outer coats, being stretched by the internal growth, drop, and consequently become shorter each year till they decay, which gives an outward appearance of imbrication ; but the only structural difference is the leaves not sheathing cylindrically at the mouth of the bulb. The most startling difference is that those of the first section flower with the leaves in vigour, instead of before their appearance. The very singular plant I discovered in the Banks. herb. though in a very imperfect state, with undulated foliage, seems to form a link between the two sections, and it is to be regretted that we cannot obtain a perfect knowledge of it.